Amines can be tricky to name, that is why we will seperate them into categories so we have specific rules to follow.
Naming Primary Amines
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Hey, guys, In these next few videos, we're gonna focus on how to name a means. So you might recall from prior videos that amines can exist as several different degree states you kind of primary, secondary, tertiary and even co ordinary means. And unlike other functional groups, where you pretty much always have the same naming system for all of the molecules in that functional group Ah, means are different because the type of name that you assign is gonna depend on the degree of the amine. So before we can even talk about AIPAC names, let's refresh on what the different degree systems for a means are. Remember that the degree of the amine is gonna be dependent on directly How many are groups are attached to the nitrogen. So in this case, this first I mean, that we're looking at would be a primary a mean because it is attached toe only one our group. As you look at the second example, the second example is now a secondary. Amine, because I've gotten are here I've gotten are here. That is a secondary. I mean, okay, so then we go up to tertiary tertiary amines as you guys remember they don't have any hydrogen because it's just all our groups. And then finally, we have quaternary amines. Now, Quaternary mean by definition, is always gonna have ah, positive charge. Why? Because that that nitrogen does not like to have four bonds. This is gonna have a formal charge, and we're not gonna focus on these for this lesson. Since it's in a ny a NY state, we're only gonna focus on the neutral versions of nitrogen. Okay, so let's go ahead and talk about the simplest type of a mean, which is a primary mean. So the way to name primary means is pretty straightforward. What we're gonna do is we're gonna add the Suffolk's a mean to the name of the alcohol sub substitute Wint's. So we look at the alcohol group and, like we did for other functional groups, we say this is a modifier. So we changed the E in the Al cane for a mean at the end. Other than that, it's like naming a regular al cane so we could look at this first version here, this first molecule and we could say, Okay, how do we name that? Our group just as just as the our group itself. And then we just have to Adam mean towards the end. So let's just go ahead and do this one together. What we're going to notice is that the longest chain is three carbons. Okay, well, we notice is that there's really no preference for 12 and three here in terms of the locations, because it's symmetrical. So I'm just gonna make this 11 This one, too, And this 13 Okay, What that means is that we have two things going on on that too. We have a metal group, right? That's a metal. And we have the amine, right? Awesome. So if we put that all together, what is that name gonna be? Well, we would just name it as an our group, then with the amine at the end. So we would say is that this isn't going to be a two metal okay to metal and then to pro pan a mean So this name got a little bit longer than the lion underneath it. But I hope you guys were able to fit that in. Basically, what we're doing is we're just naming the longest carbon chain or naming the method is a substantial went. And then I'm adding the amine part At the end, I'm taking out the e. I'm adding a mean because it's on the second carbons. That's why it's a two pro panna mean. All right, Got it. So let's go ahead and do the next one. Let's look at the next one. So this next one, the our group, is in this case, a ring. Okay, so how is that going to change the name? Well, we're gonna have to name it as a cyclo Al cane sub stitch one. Okay, so in this case, if I were just thio kind of ignore the nitrogen. Okay, what would I be looking at? I'd be looking at a methyl group again, but in this case, my our group is cyclo beauty. Okay, Now, in terms of priority, we do have to ask ourselves a question here. If you were looking at the ring which won't have the higher priority, would the one go on the metal or would the one go on the amine? Okay. And that's because you could either name it as all the amino group. Whatever the you mean on the one and the method on two. Or you could name the meth along with one and the mean on the two. What's your suspicion? Which one do you think is gonna get? The higher priority you got it a mean is a modifier. And as a general rule, anything that modifies the route name is gonna have higher priority than a metal group. So that means that I'm gonna choose to have my Amina's my one and my metal as my to Okay, putting that all together. What would we get? Okay. Well, again, I think I'm gonna running a little space, so I'll try to write a little smaller. But what I'm going to get is something that looks like this to metal, right? One cyclo buttes. I mean, Okay, why is that? Let's just break that down a little bit. So the reason for that name is that we've got the metal group on the two. We've got a cyclo butane, Right, But, uh, I'm sorry. It should have been butin. I mean, that is my bad, because we're only supposed toe exchange The last e. So what I should have actually written was Let's get our racers out. Beauty tan A mean Okay, one cycle BUE Tana mean because I'm taking out the last e and I'm replacing it with the mean And why is there a one there? Because I'm giving priority to the amino group. Okay, awesome guys. So then we've got one last example. You guys might remember this molecule from our aromatics chapter. What do you think? The name of this oneness. All right, so this one doesn't get an AIPAC name because it is one of the common names for benzene that you guys were supposed to be familiar with already. So I'll just go ahead and write it down. The name for this one is gonna be an A lien. Okay, So Anna Lien is also a primary amine guys, but it's one that we're gonna prefer to use the common name for because it's benzene. And we know that benzene molecules some of the oldest ones in organic chemistry, So we always tend to go with those common names. Alright. So, guys, I hope that made sense how to name primary means. Now, let's go ahead and flip the page and talk about secondary and tertiary means
Sometimes common names are used for amines, but the majority of the time when naming 1˚ amines we will just add the suffix "amine" in place of the "e" at the end of a name.
Here is an example of how we name structures where the amine group is not highest priority.
Primary Amines as Substituents
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Alright, guys. So one more thing before we move on to secondary and tertiary is what happens if you have a primary mean. Okay, so we've got a primary mean here, but it is not the highest priority group. Okay, what if a higher priority functional group is present? Because we just talked about how it means are higher than alcohol groups. But you guys might recall that carbon eels are some of the highest priority groups out in nomenclature. So what happens if I have a primary mean? But I have a car bucks like acid or some other kind of carbonell alcohol ketone, etcetera. Well, then how would we name this? Well, when that happens, you're going to change the Suffolk Simien, okay? You're not going to use that anymore, and you're going to replace it with the prefix amino. So you're gonna name it as a substitue in because the roots is now gonna be given to the higher priority groups. That means that now this is your roots. This is your modifier. Remember that we keep referring to a modifier as anything that changes the parent chain name right and then the mean is now gonna be the substitute. Wait. Now how do you name in Amenas? A substitue in? Well, you don't name it amine anymore. Now you call it amino. So if you ever heard of amino acid, right and amino acid is gonna be, ah, carve oxalic acid within a mean as a substitue in. That's why it's called in amino. Okay, that's beyond the scope of this lesson, but just letting you know you've heard of this term before. So in this case, what's gonna be the root name for this molecule? The route name or the common name would actually be Ben's OIC acid. Okay, this is gonna be Ben's OIC acid. You might recall from our aromatics chapter Ben's OIC acid. And that means that my NH two is gonna be named as an amino me? No. And it's gonna be on which position. What number three. Okay, so this would be on the three positions. So what you could call this is you could say that this is three amino one, Ben's OIC acid and you guys might recall that we actually have other types of nomenclature to denote. He's 1213 and 14 relationships. This would also be probably more commonly referred to as mm meta amino benzo. A gossip. Okay, remember that when you say when used the words meta, Ortho and Pera, they're just stand ins for 121314 Awesome guys. So I hope that that made sense. So now let's go ahead and talk about secondary and tertiary is
Naming Secondary and Tertiary Amines
With 2˚ and 3˚ amines, we now have multiple R groups attached to our Nitrogen, so lets see how that affects how we name them.
Naming Secondary and Tertiary Amines
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So for secondary and tertiary means the naming gets a little bit different. And that's because we have to account for two different types of substitue INTs. Remember that you can always have just an extra alcohol substitution coming off of your parent change. Sure, but now, since it's a secondary or tertiary mean, that means that we're opening up to the possibility of other are groups coming directly off of the end. How do we distinguish between in our group coming off of the parent chain and our group coming off of the nitrogen? Well, that's where the notation of end substitue INTs comes into play, and substitutes are the ones that are directly coming off of nitrogen. So it's gonna be a big part of this name. Okay? Now, the way we do this is we just take the longest alcohol group, okay? The largest algo group. And we make that our parents okay. And anything that's not on that pair of chain, anything that's coming directly off of the end is gonna be an end substantial in. Okay. So we can go ahead and do this. First one is a worked example, since I know it's a little bit. Weird toe Look at and then I'll give you as the second one is practice. So, first of all, what's the longest carbon chain? The longest carbon chain is three. So I would choose to make this my parent. Okay. As my parent, that means that this is gonna be instead of propane. How does the name change? It's obviously not just propane. It's gonna be pro pen. A mean, right? One more thing. We're missing the location. The nitrogen is coming off of which Adam on that three carbon chain one, This is gonna be a one probe anime. Cool. Now we have to talk with all the other stuff. Well, I've got two other are groups and they're both directly coming off of my nitrogen. So that means these they're gonna be denoted as an end substitue int, meaning that this is an end metal. And this is also an end metal. So I've got all my components, guys, I've got everything I need. I just have to put it together. Now, instead of naming, this is n methyl and ethyl one pro panna mean we can combine that, and that's what usually do if you have the same substitue int twice. You could just write it like this. So n comma end dime Ethel. One pro pan A mean There you have it. That's the whole name. Okay, so great job on that first one. You guys followed along. Just great. Now let's see if you guys can put that together and get the totally correct name for the second one. It's up to you Go.
Essentially what we just did is name it as a primary amine using the longest alkyl chain, and then added the other R groups as substituents coming off of our "N".
Think you can handle one more? Let's give it a try!
Name the following amines
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Alright, guys. So the first thing we had to analyze here was which one is the largest alcohol group and that undoubtedly waas my cyclo plantain. So cyclo Penton becomes what name doesn't mean That would be now cyclo Penn Tan A mean. Okay, now there's a little bit of a debate here. Do we name it as one cyclo? Penton? I mean, like we did with the parent chain over on the other one. Or do you just name it a cyclo Penton? I mean, well, it turns out guys that you guys might remember that if you only have one thing attached to a ring, you don't need to name the location. The reason is because every single location on that ring is exactly the same. So it doesn't matter. Putting with one there's just kind of pointless Now, what if you do add the one if you make it, one cycle opens. I mean, you're not going to get any marks off your grade, but just letting you know that in real life you're not going to seethe one there because it's just extra, Inc. Okay, so that being said, I'm just gonna keep it a cyclo Penton. I mean, what are the substitutes? Well, like my other example, I've got an n methyl here. But now this one's a little different because this substitute Wint is different. This is an end, Ethel. So I got an end missile and NFL. How I put all this together. Well, guys, when in doubt. Alphabetical order. Okay, so this final name is gonna be and Ethel and Metal Sigh Clue Pent Pantano mean almost off the page here. Pantanal mean cool guys. So, as you can see, I put it off a bit of order. You might be saying, Johnny, why did you not make it end common end like in the last example? Because guys you Onley use in common and notation when you're using a die when you have to the same substitute want In this case, you have to put in alphabetical order Sweet have n common e and then income m r n dash m wherever For because we have the alphabetical order of e coming before them. Okay, if in your answer, you Haddon end metal dash one cycle pantano mean again Unnecessary, but not wrong. Your professor wouldn't take off any points for that. Okay, so that is how you name? Pretty much every mean that you'll need to name this course. All right, so let's move on to the next topic.
If you got that one correct, I'm impressed. But if not, don't sweat it!
Rome wasn't built in a day and no one learned naming amines right away either – or something like that.