Organic Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Organic Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

6. Thermodynamics and Kinetics

Gibbs Free Energy

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Time for Gibbs Free Energy, the most important equation for understanding reaction favorability! It’s going to be important that we understand the significance of all the terms in this equation.  

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Breaking down the different terms of the Gibbs Free Energy equation.

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1. Enthalpy (ΔH°) is the sum of bond dissociation energies for the reaction.

  • Negative values (-) indicate the making of new bonds = Exothermic
  • Positive values (+) indicate the breaking of new bonds = Endothermic

 

2. Entropy (ΔS) is the tendency of a system to take its most probable form.

  • Negative values (-) indicate less probable = Unfavored
  • Positive values (+) indicate more probable = Favored

 

3. Temperature (T) amplifies the effect of entropy on the overall favorability.

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Intermediates vs. Transition States

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  • Some reactions require more than one step to go to completion. The ΔGo is the sum of all the steps

 

  • Transition states are high-energy species that CANNOT be isolated. They involve bonds being broken and made at the same time.

 

  • Intermediates are high-energy species that CAN be isolated. They rest at a higher energy state than normal.
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