Organic Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Organic Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

1. A Review of General Chemistry

Condensed Structural Formula

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What if you want to describe a molecule, but you have nothing but a keyboard? (No fancy pictures or drawings). This is was actually a big dilemma in the chemistry world, which is why we now have condensed structure. 

Condensed Rules

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concept

How to interpret condensed structures.

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The condensed structure shows us the connectivity of the molecule. The use of parentheses is important:

  • Parentheses with no subscripts: Branch on the chain.
  • Parenthesis with subscripts: Multiple branches on a chain.
  • CH2 within parentheses + subscripts: Repeating CH2 units within a chain.

Condensed Mixed Structures

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example

How to draw condensed mixed structures.

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This is similar to normal condensed structure, except there is a bondline ringed component. Always draw your condensed letters in terms of connectivity!

  • If to the right of the ring:Draw branch normally.
  • If to the left of the ring:Draw branch in reverse.  
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Problem

Convert the condensed structure into a bondline structure 

Remember, the exact direction of your zig-zag pattern doesn’t matter as long as everything is connected correctly. Single bonds can rotate freely, so let’s not spend lots of time worrying about the exact angles you drew.