Organic Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Organic Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors.

14. Synthetic Techniques

Alkane Halogenation

When trying to make alkanes reactive, we must first perform a radical halogenation to add a halogen and allow for further reactions to take place. 


The one exception we must remember is that when doing a radical chlorination in particular we can only perform this reaction when a single type of hydrogen is present



Functionalizing Alkanes

Play a video:
Was this helpful?
so the synthetic cheat sheet focused on a few different important rules. Okay, And now what I want to do is focus on one of those in particular. And that's Al Qaeda halogen nation. So this was actually a pretty easy rule because we just remembered that this is the only way to function. Allies Al Keynes through radical college nation. That's the only way. And I've already said in past listens that radical coronation is really Onley useful. If you have a single type of what in your molecule do you remember hydrogen? Okay, okay. So on, Lee, if you have a single type of hydrogen will be helpful. If you don't, then it won't be all right. So, I mean, I would love it if all of you guys got this as your retro synthesis. This first question. So how do you turn that Al cane into this? Al Kyohei lied. Oh, my God. It's so easy. Like you could do this in your sleep. It's just br to overheat or light. Okay, So you're thinking, man, that would be so awesome. But guess what? Your professor probably isn't going to give you that, at least by itself. Okay, Well, you're probably gonna get Is either this in a multi step retro synthesis or it's just gonna be harder than that. Okay, because that's too easy. That's just weighed two straightforward. Okay, So what you're more likely to get is where you have to turn an al cane into an al Kyohei light that you can immediately get in one step from Halogen Nation, for example. We can easily put bro means here. But it's not that easy to just stick of roaming on a random carbon like that or to stick a roaming on a random carbon like that. How do we do that? That's going to require multi step synthesis that's gonna require us Thio kind of concentrate and figure out what regents would it take to transform it to that? Okay, so that's the first thing. The second thing is that you guys should also know how to take an ocular hey, lied like this and turn it back into an Al cane kids important to know what reactions could go backwards and take it back to the Al Cane. So we're gonna be practicing all of that here Now What? I want you guys to do, in particular, is focused on. I think, two of the easier ones. This is This is not the easiest exercise here. It's a little bit tricky, but I want us to focus on B and D and tell me what those re agents are. Cosby is basically taking. It's not that bad. It's taking this Al Cane and putting an Al Kyohei lied right there. So you have to figure out in multiple steps. That's not just one step, how you can do that the same thing or just putting it in a different place. So I want you guys to try out both of these. I'll pause the video. I'll pause, you know, and you guys try your hardest to get those sin theses down and then obviously I'll show you the answer, so let's go for it.

Predict the product:


Propose a synthesis for following transformation: