GOB Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in your GOB - General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry class with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems.

Matter and Measurements

States of Matter

The 3 States of Matter include gases, liquids and solids. 

Analyzing the States of Matter



States of Matter Concept 1

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under varying conditions of pressure and temperature. Most substances can exist in three states of matter. So we're talking about solids, liquids or gases. Now we're gonna say these forms of matter have an effect on physical properties which deal with physical appearance or state. Now with the states of matters, we have two terms you should familiarize yourself with. We have compressibility and viscosity compressibility is the capacity to flatten or reduce in size by increasing pressure. So something that's incredibly compressible can have its size decreased. So usually that is associated with gas molecules. Gas molecules spread themselves out as far as possible within a container. I can apply outward pressure on this and squeeze the gas molecules closer together. Now, viscosity, viscosity is the resistance to flow or to change in shape. Something that is highly viscous moves very slowly because it has a high resistance to flow. Think of honey versus water. Water can flow very easily in its liquid form. It has a low viscosity. There's no much, there's not that much resistance to its flow. Honey, on the other hand, is much slower. It moves much more slowly, so it is more viscous. So just remember the higher viscosity, the higher the resistance to flow, the slower the substance will move.


States of Matter Concept 2

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So here, when we take a look at the three states of matter, we first look at gases, gases themselves can assume both the volume and shape of their containers, liquids. On the other hand, they could assume the shape, But not necessarily the volume of their container. Let's say your volume is 100 ml beaker And you only have 10 mls of your liquid. You could put all that liquid within that beaker. Okay, But there just isn't enough of it to fill up the whole beaker. There's only 10 miles of it. Silence. They maintain both their shape and their volume. When it comes to gases, gases are highly compressible. So they have a high compressibility. That means that I can put them in a container, apply pressure to that container and cause those gas molecules to come closer and closer together. That's what we mean by highly compressible. Your molecules are far enough apart that I can apply outside pressure and bring them closer together. Here, liquids the molecules are not right next to each other as tightly. They're moving around freely because of this, we're going to say that they have a moderate compressibility. I could squeeze them closer together but not by much for solid solid are locked in place um With each other here they have a low compressibility. I can't squeeze the atoms anymore closer together. Next viscosity viscosity remember is our resistance to flow. Something that is viscous moves very slowly, gases move around and jump around pretty easily inside of a container. Because of this will say gases have a low viscosity. Yeah, liquids like water, Water kind of moves pretty quickly but not all liquids are like water because of this. We're gonna say liquids have more of a moderate viscosity solid. Do you take a solid? You like your calculator put on the table? It's not gonna move pretty easily. You have to apply force to it to move it. That's because solids generally have a high viscosity. They have a high resistance to flow. They don't want to move unless you make them move. All right. So when we take a look at our three phases of matter, keep in mind their shape and volume in terms of a container, their viscosity, as well as their compressibility.


States of Matter Example 1

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Here it states an unknown substance has a volume of 12.1 leaders and upon quadrupling the pressure has an unchanged volume, which is a likely physical state of the unknown. So here we have solid liquid gas and neutron, we'll hear A neutron isn't one of our physical states of matter, so we can take that out. That means our answers either A. B or C. Here, they're telling us that required tripling the pressure and the volume doesn't change at all. Remember, gases are highly compressible, so changing the pressure by this much would cause a big change in the volume of the gas. Liquids are not as compressible as gases, but they would be affected if we quadrupled the pressure, the volume would adjust slightly for liquids. So here it can be a liquid. It have to be a solid. Some of themselves are not compressible in terms of applying pressure to them, the volume or less would stay the same. So here, out of all our options, option A is the correct answer.

Which of the following choices will have the lowest observed viscosity?  


Nitric acid, which is used in the production of fertilizers, plastics and dyes, has a melting point of – 42ºC and a boiling point of 83ºC. Determine its physical state at a temperature of 110ºC.