GOB Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in your GOB - General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry class with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems.

Molecular Compounds

Covalent Bonds

A covalent bond is the connection of different elements through the sharing of electrons.

Covalent Bonding

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Covalent Bonds Concept 1

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So with covalin bonding, we say that a key feature of covalin compounds is where molecular bonds involves sharing a valence electrons between non metals. Remember covalin compounds only involved non metals recall they do this in order to achieve eight valence electrons or a filled outer shell like the noble gases. Now we're gonna say with this idea we have what's called the octet rule and the duet role with the octet rule. That's when an element reacts in order to achieve eight valence electrons. And with the duet rule, this is specifically for the element of hydrogen. Here it reacts in order to achieve two valence electrons. Doing this helps it to establish a filled outer shell like the noble gas of helium. Remember from hydrogen to helium, hydrogen only needs to gain one more electron to be just like the noble gas of helium. So just remember non metals are forming bonds in order to obtain electron arrangements like the noble gases. They do this to fulfill either the octet rule or the duet rule in terms of hydrogen
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Covalent Bonds Concept 2

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So with the duet rule and the octet rule, remember hydrogen follows the duet rule. Here we have two hydrogen. Both of their electron configurations are one S. One. If they can gain one electron they can become one s. two and become just like the noble gases helium. When it comes to covalin bonds though there is no transferring of electrons. It's the sharing of valence electrons. So what they do here is that they each share their one valence electron. So basically they don't have sole possession of both electrons they're sharing amongst each other. That gives each of them an electron configuration of one s. 2. Just like the noble gases in terms of helium, other non metals they have more shells and therefore they want to follow the octet rule. If we take a look here at flooring. Flooring is one S. 22 S 22 P five. If you get 22 P. Six, it can become just like the noble gas of neon. What each foreign decides to do is they decide to share their one electron. So here neither one has sole position of both electrons within this bond. They're sharing them with each other. And in that way they each can have the two P six electron configuration that the desire doing this allows them to have or mimic the electron configuration of neon. So in both instances, the duet rule and the octet rule allows for a double gas to mimic the electron configuration or electron arrangement of the nearest noble gases to them. Yeah.

In order to obtain the electron configuration of noble gases, Hydrogen follows the duet rule while other non-metals follow the octet rule.

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Covalent Bonds Example 1

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which of these elements is unlikely to form Covalin bonds. So we have here sulfur. We have hydrogen, we have potassium, we have are gone and we have silicon. So remember Covalin bonds are the sharing of electrons between non metals between non metals. So if we take a look here, sulfur is a non metal sulfur could form Covalin bonds. Hydrogen is a nonmetal. Potassium is a metal. We said that it's between nonmetal, so this can't ever form Covalin Bonds. Let's look at the other options we have are gone and then we have silicon. Are gone is a non metal silicon is a metal Lloyd now technically remember metal Lloyds share characteristics of both metals and non metals. And we'll see that because it's a metal Lloyd and shares some nonmetal characteristics, there is the potential to form Covalin bonds. Alright, so E has the potential C can ever have the potential informing Kobelev bonds because it's strictly a metal. So just remember, when it comes to kobane a bonding, it's the sharing of electrons between elements that have nonmetallic characteristics
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Covalent Bonds Concept 3

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When it comes to the properties of a Covalin compounds, we can take a look at their physical states, their conductivity as well as their temperature. Now, we're going to say because of the nature of their sharing of valence electrons, they can exist in any of the three states of matter at room temperature, so they can exist as solids, liquids or gases. In terms of conductivity, we're going to say that they represent poor electrical conductors, and that's because they're not easily dissolved when I place them in a solvent like water. And then also, we're going to say here that in terms of temperature, they tend to have lower melting points and lower boiling points.
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Covalent Bonds Example 2

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which of the following compounds is expected to have the lowest boiling point. So here we have A. L. I. B. R. Latina, bromide, we have sulfur dioxide, we have sodium metal, we have zinc chloride and then we have led. All right, so low boiling points is indicative of co violent compounds. Now, before we even talk about that, realize that we have sodium metal and we have LED metals. When you think about medals in everyday life, you see metal structures, you see that they're pretty strong and rigid. We'd expect them to have higher boiling points. So see and erupt A and D. Are compounds composed of a metal in this case lithium and zinc with a non metal in terms of bromine and chlorine. So they would represent ionic compounds. Ionic compounds tend to have higher boiling points. B is the answer because we have sulfur with oxygen. We have only non metals bonded together. So this represents a covalin compound which tends to have a lower boiling point.
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