Atoms and the Periodic Table
Electronic Structure: Orbitals
Orbital gives the orientation of electrons in a set of orbitals.
Electronic Structure: Orbitals Concept 1
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Now there exists a relationship between our sub shell or sub level and the orbital shape. We're going to say that the sub level letter gives information on the orientation. Yeah. Of the orbital that electrons occupy. And when we say orientation, we're just talking about the traveled path the electron takes and this travel path resembles different types of shapes. Now, if we're talking about the sub level letter of s, its orbital shape is just a sphere and it's just one shape. Now, if we're talking about Pete, then we're talking about three dumbbells or three ellipses. We've used that term before. Three ellipses. Each one of these shapes corresponds to an atomic orbital. So the P sub shell has three orbital's attached to it. Each one looks like in lipsky's. Then we're going to say that the d sub shell letter has connected to it. Five different orbital's the first four look like a four leaf clovers, And the 5th shape looks like an ellipses with a ring around it. Now, of course, we know that there is another sub level letter and that is F. We're gonna say it's ignored because it has the most shape and is beyond the scope of this course. So what you should have noticed is as we go from S. P two D. The number of shapes is increasing. We start out with one, then three, then five. So the pattern is we're adding two more shapes each time. So technically, if we wanted to look at the F sub level itself, we expected to have seven different shapes because again, we keep adding to to the number of shapes as you go from S to F. Again, you don't need to know what these F sub shell letter shapes are, just realize that there's a lot of them. Okay, so keep this in mind. We're talking about sub shells and orbital shape, that there is a connection between the two.
Electronic Structure: Orbitals Example 1
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based on the following atomic orbital shape, which of the following set of values is correct. All right. So what we have here is we have in a lip sees with a circle around it or or dumbbell with a circle around it. We know that that is connected to a particular sub shell letter. Remember above we said that that's connected to the sexual letter of D. So that means the answer can only be see or eat. Yeah, but how do we determine which one is the better answer? Well, remember the limitation of our end value N is connected to the period or rows of the periodic table. The limitation on end is that it has to be a value that is from one to infinity. Can't ever be a number less than one. So an equal zero here is not possible. Mhm. That means that option E would have to be are correct answer.
Which of the following orbitals possesses the most orbital shapes?
Electronic Structure: Orbitals Concept 2
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recall that an orbital is the region within a sub shell where to specific electrons can be found. Now, an easy way to understand what an orbital is, realize that it's a combination of your shell number with your sub shall letter. So, for example, shell number, let's say you're dealing with the third shell and let's say we're dealing with our sub shell letter of peak three P would represent an orbital. So just remember an orbital itself is just your show number and sublevel sub shell letter combined together.
Electronic Structure: Orbitals Example 2
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provide the identity of a set of orbital's that exist in the fourth energy level and P sub level. All right. So first of all, we're going to say that the fourth energy level is associated with the fourth shell, which means in equals four. It also means that it's literally the number four that defines that set of orbital's. So here we have four and we have four. So the answer is going to be either B or C. Next, it tells us that we have a P sub level. Remember that's the letter that goes right after the number. They're telling us that it's P. So we're dealing with a four piece set of orbital's, which means that options see is the correct answer.
Electronic Structure: Orbitals Concept 3
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Now, before we go into the different shapes involved with these sets of orbital's realize that they are connected to our sub shell letter. Remember our sub shell letters are S. P. D. And F. And when it comes to the F. Sub shell or sub level, remember that it is beyond the scope of this course. So let's go back up. When we're dealing with the S sub shell or sub level realize that it has connected to it one orbital which is represented by this red box, that orbital has a specific shape attached to it, which is just a sphere. When we're dealing with the P sub shell or sub level itself is broken down further into three sets of orbital's. So when we talk about three p for example, three piece composed of three of these orbital's. Now we're going to say that they are shaped like ellipses or dumbbells and we're going to say the part that's shaded in is the most likely region for an electron will reside. We're going to say that they each have their own designation of P X, P Y and P Z. Now this is in reference to a coordinate graph. So remember if we have uh this graph here, this is why this is X. And this can be seen as Z. So when we're saying P X. That means it resides on the X. When we say py, that means it resides on the Y. And when we say pz it resides here on the Z. Okay, so that's where these letters are coming from. For D. We're going to say here that D has five shapes because it has five different orbital's. We're going to say that these orbital's R d sub Y Z D, sub x, y D, sub Z D, sub x squared minus Y squared D sub z squared. Now, of course, you don't have to memorize uh, these specific descriptions for each of these orbital because that's way too complicated and beyond the scope of this course, what you do need to remember is that when it comes to the D. Sub shell or sub level, it has five different orbital's. The first four are shaped like four leaf clovers And the 5th is shaped like a dumb bell with a ring around it. When it comes to the F sub shell or sub level, it has attached to it seven different orbital's. Each of them would have their own shape, but again, their shapes are beyond the focus or scope of this course. So don't worry about it. Just realize that when it comes to the F sub shell or sub level, it has seven sets of orbital's. All right. So just remember that are sucks. Shell letter or sublevel letter is connected to our sets of orbital's, each with their own unique shape.
Which of the following statements is false?
a) A set of d orbitals contains 5 orbitals.
b) A set of 4s orbitals would have more energy than a set of 3p orbitals.
c) The second shell of an atom possesses d orbitals.
d) A set of f orbitals contains 3 orbitals.
e) The first energy level contains only s orbitals.