Elements lose or gain electrons to have the ideal number of outer shell electrons like the noble gases.
Main Group Element Charges
Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges Concept 1
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Now the elements of the periodic table will either lose or gain electrons to become just like the noble gasses. Now, remember, your noble gasses are the elements that are found in Group eight A or Group 18. Okay, so remember two different ways to describe the same column of the periodic table. The reason these elements want to become the noble gas is because noble gasses themselves have the optimal number off outer shell electrons. What that means specifically will talk about several chapters from now. But just realize when it comes to the elements, the leader lose or gain electrons. So if there number of electron matches one of the nearest noble gasses, now we're going to stay here. When it comes to medals, medals tend to lose electrons to become positively charged ions called cat ions. Here, just think of it like this. Cat ions. AT T could represent the positive charge that the ion gains, and it makes sense because if you're losing negatively charged subatomic particles in the form of electrons, you're going to become mawr positively charged Now, medals themselves medals can have either one type of positive charge or multiple types of positive charges. When a metal possesses one charge, we refer to them as type one medals. When metals have multiple charges, then they're referred to as type two. Medals will go in greater detail on what types of metals are Type one medals and what other types of metals are. Type two medals Now. If medals lose electrons, then non metals must be gaining electrons. So non metals tend to gain electrons to become negatively charged ions called an ions. Remember, again, this makes sense. I'm gaining negatively charged electrons, so I'm gonna become more negative as a result. So just remember, the whole reason elements gain and lose electrons is to become just like the noble gasses. In the next video, we'll see exactly how many electrons will we lose or gain for any particular element.
Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges Example 1
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So for this example question. It says, from what you know about ion formation in the periodic table, which ion would be unlikely to occur. So before we look at this question, remember, we're gonna say that medals, they tend to lose electrons, so they're gonna lose electrons. They're going to become positively charged. And remember, non metals tend to gain electrons and therefore becoming negatively charged. So if we take a look here, we have our be looking on a periodic table. We know that our B has is a metal and therefore it makes sense that it would have a positive charge. So this is a likely set up for R B I on next oxygen o oxygen is a non metal nonmetal tend to gain electrons have become negatively charged. So this is reasonable. M N m n is a metal again. Medals tend to lose electrons to become positively charged, so that positive charge is a possibility. A l A. L is aluminum. Aluminum is a metal again. Medals tend to lose electrons to become positively charged, so it doesn't make sense that l would have a negative three charge here, So this is unlikely. So This would be our answer then, if we look at the last one. Cl chlorine. Chlorine is a non metal, so it makes sense it could gain electrons to become negatively charged. So just remember, remember, metals tend to lose electrons to become positively charged. Non metals tend to gain electrons to become negatively charged. Okay, now that we know this fundamental idea, let's move on to our next video. Where we go into, how many electrons do they gain? How many electrons do they lose and in that way, know what type of ions are possible for certain types of elements.
Metals lose electrons and become cations. Non-metals gain electrons and become anions.
Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges Concept 2
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So let's talk about first our main group elements. Remember your main group elements are the elements found in Group One A or Group one, two way or group to and then from three, a tow eight A or what we call groups 13 to 18. The elements here in the great outbox. Those are our transition metals. We'll talk about those later on the four. Right now. Let's just focus on our main group. Elements now recall that the atomic number, which uses the variables e of an atom, equals the number of protons within its nucleus. For example, we'd say that beryllium has an atomic number four, so it has four protons. For a neutral element, it's number off electrons is equal to its number of protons. So beryllium a year has an atomic number four, which means it has four protons. And here, if we're dealing with a neutral element, it'll have the same number of electrons. So it will also have four electrons. Now we said that all these elements of the periodic table are all trying to become just like our noble gasses are Group eight a elements. They have the optimal number of electrons helium has to Neon has 10. Arden has 18, and as we go down, these are all their atomic numbers, which gives us the number of electrons they have now. Elements try to gain or lose electrons to match each number of electrons for the noble gasses. So noble gasses, since they're perfect, their charges. Zero so they don't have a charge. They don't need to gain or lose electrons. Let's look at groups 78 all the elements of groups. Seven. A florin. Let's look a F Flooring has nine electrons when it's neutral. If it wants toe have 10 electrons like neon, it would have to gain one. Electron chlorine has 17 electrons with neutral to have 18 like are gone again and have to gain one electron. So each element in this column would have to gain one electron to become like the noble gas next to it. By gaining that one electron, they would get a charge now of minus one. Because, remember, gaining electrons gives us a negative charge. Oxygen, oxygen, when neutral, has eight electrons to have 10 electrons like neon. How many electrons would it need to gain if you said to you'd be right. So same thing with software has 16 and have to gain two electrons to become just like are gone. So this group six say it's charges normally negative too. Nitrogen has seven. So to get to 10.5 the game three electrons. So this charge, the charge of this group is normally minus three. Now, of course, uh, some of these groups that gets tricky because in group Five we see that we have non metals here, so they have a negative three charge. But then we have metal Lloyds and then we run into medals medals don't wanna have a negative charge, would have a positive charge. So these negative charges, when referring to them, is predominantly with the nonmetal the blue species. The elements are in the blue Boxes group for is older tricky, So group four is equal distance. Either way, what I mean by that is carbon could try to gain for electrons to become like neon. Or you could try to lose four electrons so that it has to like helium, So it's kind of in a special situation, So as a result of this, we kind of just say not applicable to Group four based on their location. The periodic table. Now, though, we do have an exception that that's around exception one, and this pertains to lead and tin. Lead and tin are here S N and P B because of where they're located, how far that down they are. They kind of have characteristics similar to transition metals. They can either be plus two or plus four for their charges. So just remember when it comes to tin and lead that can be plus two or plus for their, uh, interesting situation when it comes to the periodic table in charges. Now let's look at Boron and the other elements that are within this group. Boron is a metal Lloyd metal Lloyd's. They have characteristics of both metals and non metals, so it's a bit tricky with them, so we won't be talking about moron. But we can talk about the elements below boron aluminum all the way down to NH. They're all metals, so they all wanna lose electrons to become like a noble gas. Now aluminum here, its atomic numbers 13. So when it's neutral, it has 13 electrons. It has two choices. It could either try to gain seven electrons to get it. I mean, not seven. You could try to gain five electrons to have 18 electrons, just like Argha. Or I could do something easier than that. Instead of trying to gain five electrons, it could just try toe lose three electrons so that it has electrons like neon. And when it comes to cameras for week chemistry, we always go in the past. That's easiest and fastest. Okay, so it's easier for aluminum to lose three electrons than toe. Look to gain five electrons. Okay, because it's more spaces that you have to jump to become a noble gas this way. Easier just to let go of your three electrons. So because of this, this group tends to be plus three for its charge. Beryllium. Let's look at beryllium. Beryllium has an atomic number four, so it has two choices. It could either try to what gain six electrons. 123456 To become like neon or do something easier. Just lose two electrons so that it has two electrons just like helium. So the easier and shorter path is to lose electrons. So it's this this group tends to be plus two. Then finally, again, we're talking about the medals. They're the ones who want to lose electrons to become positive heat. Hydrogen is not a metal, so we don't talk about hydrogen in this regard. But we'd say that lithium could try to gain seven electrons to get to 10 like helium, which is a long distance to cover. Or the easier thing would be just to lose one electron and become like helium, So this group tends to be plus one. So these are the charge that you need to keep commit to memory when it comes to these different groups. Group One A plus one group to a plus two, then plus three. Fourth group is not applicable. Group five days minus three minus to the minus one Noble gasses air perfect so they don't want to gain a charge. Now exception to we're gonna say this pertains to our heavy metals of bismuth polonium and those that have atomic numbers from 1 14 to 18. Because of their position on the periodic table, they're a little bit weird and they have multiple types of charges, so we tend not to talk about them But when it comes to man group elements, just keep in mind the major charges that we've listed, plus one plus two plus three, minus three, minus two minus one And then, of course, your exception one. This is what you need to take away from the main group elements and their various charges.
Periodic Table: Main Group Element Charges Example 2
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So for this example question, it says predicted charge that a gallium ion would possess. So we know it has a charge because it's using the term ion now. Gallium, remember, gallium is elements. Symbol is G. A gallium itself is in Group three A. Or what we known as Group 13. Yeah, now remember, in this group, it's easier toe lose electrons because most of the elements in this group are metals, and it's easier for them to lose three electrons in order to be like the nearest noble gas. So here this group 38 normally tends to be plus three in terms of charge. Because of this option, C would be are correct answer.