For a multielectron atom, a 3s orbital lies lower in energy than a 3p orbital because (LO 5.16)
(a) a 3p orbital has more nodal surfaces than a 3s orbital.
(b) an electron in a 3p orbital has a higher probability of being closer to the nucleus than an electron in a 3s orbital.
(c) inner electrons shield electrons in a 3p orbital more effec-tively than electrons in a 3s orbital.
(d) the energy of the electron can be spread between three 3p orbitals instead of only one 3s orbital.
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Master Periodic Trend: Effective Nuclear Charge with a bite sized video explanation from Jules Bruno