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General Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

6. Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions

Activity Series

Activity Series is a list of single displacement reactions in order of reactivity.

The Activity Series Chart
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concept

Activity Series

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in this new set of videos, we're gonna take a look at Activity Siri's. But first we need to realize what a single displacement reaction is. It's basically when one element replaces another element within a compound. So for simplicity, we say that we have an element A, and it's trying to replace one of the elements within the compound. BC Let's say that it wants to replace be it would literally remove, be kicked, be out. And so now we have a new compound, a C. With be over here now, not any element can replace or displace another element from a compound to determine which ones can we utilize the activity. Siri's chart. This chart determines if an element can displace another element. Now we're going to say an element higher in the activity. Siri's chart will displace an element below it in the Siri's, so just remember a single displacement reaction. One element replaces another within a compound to create a whole new compound, and we're gonna utilize an activity Siri's chart to see which elements can displace other ones. So click on to the next video and let's take a look at this activity. Siri's chart
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concept

Activity Series

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before us. We have the activity. Siri's chart. So let's take a quick look at it. Realize first that as we go up the activity, Siri's strength increases, and we need to realize here that this first group in red lithium, potassium, barium, strontium, calcium, sodium they're above all the other groups so they could displace any of those. And within that group. Since lithium is the highest, it can displace any of the elements below it. So remember we said, the higher up you are in terms of the activity, Siri's chart, the easier it is for you displace the elements below you. We also realize here that we have hydrogen gas, kind of as like, ah, border. That helps to separate these below this border. We have these elements here which cannot really displace hydrogen. So if hydrogen is connected to another element, they won't be able to kick out the hydrogen and bond with that other element. Now, here we can talk about what these other groups can do. How can they displace H two so basically they can replace hydrogen for the first group if it's in the form of liquid water. If it's in the form off gas liquid. Uh, we're not liquid gas water vapor, which we call steam. And then finally, if it's in the form of an acid as H 30 plus okay, so they can displace hydrogen from any of these forms, they can also displace elements below them. And as we go down, we see that the activity strength is decreasing. So these could only displays hydrogen if it's found in liquid water, or if it's found in gashes, vapor. And then, as you can see, we're just going down, down, down what they were able to do these could only displace it from H 30 plus, which is our our asset. So just remember, we're gonna be looking at these elements in their activity Siri's to see how they can displace another element.
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example

Activity Series Example 1

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in this example question. It says a very common example is the displacement off a hydrogen atom by magnesium when reacting with hydrochloric acid. Based on your understanding of the activity. Siri's chart determine the products formed. Alright, so magnesium is a metal. Remember, metals are mono atomic and natural existence solids. Then we have hydrochloric acid. HCL also recall when we talked about soluble ity and electrolytes that acids exist in the acquis form. Here we're talking about displacing hydrogen by magnesium. That's what they tell us. So that means that magnesium is going toe kick out, basically hydrogen from HCL. That means we're gonna have a metal magnesium with a non metal chlorine. Remember, metal plus nonmetal means it's Ionic and Ionic compound, so we need their charges. Magnesium and group to a. So it's charges. Two. Plus chlorine is a group minus group seven A. So it's minus one. Remember when the numbers in the charges are different. They don't cancel out. They crisscross. So too comes here and one comes here. Sweet have here magnesium chloride. A quiz. Now hydrogen gets displaced. When it gets displaced, it becomes its natural form. So the natural form of hydrogen is H two. And remember, hydrogen exists as a gas in its natural form. If you don't recall, that makes you go back and take a look at my videos. When we talk about periodic table and elemental forms, all we need to realize here now is that on the product side, we have to chorines and two hydrogen. So to balance this out, I just need to put a two here for HCL. So this were would represent my equation after magnesium has displaced hydrogen from hydrochloric acid.
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Problem

Based on your understanding of activities determine if a reaction occurs and if so provide the products formed. 

Ba (s) + H2O (g) →

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Problem

Based on your understanding of activities determine if a reaction occurs and if so provide the products formed. 

Zn (s) + NiCl2 (aq) →

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Problem

If the activity of halogens is stated as:Fluorine > Chlorine > Bromine > Iodine, determine if a reaction occurs and if so provide the products formed. 

Cl2 (g) + AlBr3 (aq) →

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