Now, nuclear binding energy is involved in our discussion of mass to energy conversions back and forth. We're going to say if the mass defect is known, then its conversion to energy can be determined. We're going to say nuclear binding energy, which uses the variable E, is the energy that is released during the formation of an isotope. We're going to say recall. The process can also be seen as energy being absorbed to break up the isotope.

Now here we're going to say that the higher the nuclear binding energy, then the more stable the nucleus will be for any given isotope. With nuclear binding energy, we have our own formula here. We're going to say the formula for nuclear binding energy is per one mole of a radioisotope, and we're going to say nuclear binding energy, which is E=MC2. So our equation that we associate with Albert Einstein here, E is our nuclear binding energy, typically units of Joules.

From here, once you know joules, you can change to kilojoules or even megaelectron volts. Here we're going to say M is our mass defect in this instance. It's not going to be in atomic mass units. It needs to be in kilograms because of the presence of joules. That's because remember 1 Joule is equal to kilograms times meters squared over a second squared. Now the meter squared and the second squared come from squaring C, which is our speed of light.

Remember, speed of light is equal to 30×108 meters per second. All of these variables together help us to calculate nuclear binding energy. Remember, if you know nuclear binding energy, you can use it to determine your mass defect, and if you know your mass defect, you can use that to determine the nuclear binding energy. They're connected to each other through this formula.