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General Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

22. Organic Chemistry

Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon and the chemical bonds it forms with elements. 

Organic Compounds

A compound must contain the element carbon in order to be classified as "organic". 


Organic Compounds versus Hydrocarbons

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Hey, guys, in this new chapter, we're gonna take a look at organic chemistry. For those of you are brave enough after Cameron and came to move on to organic, we're gonna learn some of the fundamental principles that are covered in both organic one and organic to. It's not gonna be as complex as when you get to those classes, but knowing this now will help a great deal for you guys to get mawr acquainted. Toe organic structures once you start. So let's take a look at the first page here. We say organic chemistry is the study of carbon, so that's important. It's a study of carbon and the other common non metals. It's connected to these other common non metals can be hydrogen could be oxygen can be nitrogen can be sulfur or any of the halogen. It's now. There could be examples that don't have one of those non metals, maybe phosphorus, to get thrown in the mix, but basically on organic compound. The most important part of it is that it has carbon, and those carbons are connected Toa other non metals. Now we're going to say that some organic molecules are made up of just carbons and hydrogen. So, of course, because of this there simply called hydrocarbons. So here you might think the word hydro means water like to hydrate something. But here, hydro just means hydrogen. So remember that hydro means hydrogen hydration means water. So if we take a look at these four different examples, let's try to classify them as being organic compounds. And after that, determine if they're hydrocarbons. If they're not, organic compounds will just simply say they're not organic compounds. So for the first one, we're gonna say here it has carbons involved, so it's definitely organic, so it's an organic compound. Also, it's made up of carbons, and hydrogen is, and that's it. Nothing else. So it's also could be classified as a hydrocarbon. So this compound here is both an organic compound and a hydrocarbon for the next one. It also possesses carbons in it, and because of that, it is also organic. Now you're gonna have to get accustomed to seeing organic molecules like this. We say that this is called the expanded formula, where they basically show all the bonds connected to all the elements on Remember carbon must make four bonds These are some of the principles that you guys learned when you first started drawing lewis dot structures. Now it's organic, but it is not made up of only carbons and hydrogen, so it is not a hydrocarbon because it also possesses an oxygen. If we look at sea, C is organic because it has a carbon involved, so it's definitely organic. But again, it is not, Ah, hydrocarbon, because it possesses an element different from hydrogen and carbon. And then here, if we look, take a look at the last example. HCL HCL remember, is a strong acid. It possesses no comp, no carbon, so it's not organic at all. It is an inorganic acid. You'll hear Ah, lot of acids and Jen can being referred to as inorganic acids. That's because they don't possess any carbons. So it's not organic. It's inorganic. Okay, so it's not organic inorganic because it possesses no carbons. Also definitely not a hydrocarbon, because we don't have any carbons at all. Okay, so it's not a hydrocarbon is not organic, it is inorganic. So this is just the beginnings of organic chemistry. So fundamentally, Just remember, when it comes to organic molecules, the distinguishing factor they all have in common is that they possess, Ah, carbon, that carbon makes them on organic compound. And if it only has carbon and hydrogen, that's gonna be referred to as, Ah, hydrocarbon. Once we're able toe nail down these principles, then we can move on to more complex ideas dealing with these different types of biological and organic molecules.