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General Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

23. Chemistry of the Nonmetals

Nitrogen Family

The Nitrogen Family also known as the Pnictogens represents Group 5A of the periodic table. 

The Nitrogen Family

The Nitrogen Family represents one of the most diverse groups in the periodic table. 


The Nitrogen Family

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in this video, we're gonna take a look at the elements in Group Five A known as the Nitrogen group. Now, besides the nitrogen group of Nitrogen Family Group five days, also known as your Nick Trojans. So there may be a term that you don't hear getting thrown around them as much, but it's out there. Nick Turgeon's is just another way of describing Group five A the nitrogen family. Now here, we're gonna say, due to its position on the periodic table, Group five A. Shows more diversity than the earlier groups over three a two a one A. We're gonna say some key physical and chemical behaviors we need to realize here is we're gonna say the non predictable behavior of the elements and Group five A. Reflects the transition from individual co violent molecules which tend to happen with nitrogen and phosphorus. Okay, so where they're bonding, they have typical co violent bonding for non metals. But then we move over to more intricate, stronger network co Vaillant solids in arsenic and antimony. So they have co violent networks. And then we move over to the last elements. We have bismuth and Moscow V in here Moscow Veum. Even though it's way down on the bottom, we won't exactly said that it's gonna have typical metallic characteristics because if we take a look here, so M. C is Moscow Veum. So you can tell from the name it's named after Moscow. Here it was originally called on on Pentium again. UNM means one and pent means five. So if you look on the periodic table, the element that has an atomic number of 1 15 on on Pentium was renamed to Moscow Veum to honor the scientist who discovered it, a team of scientists from countries who discovered it with in Moscow here like elements 1 13 and on because it's synthetic and made in the lab and so heavy in terms of its atomic number, it's highly unstable, extremely radioactive. We're gonna say the most stable form of Moscow Veum is Moscow Veum to 90 here it has a half life off 0.8 seconds. You'll see that if you look at the half lives off these elements as you get closer and closer toe element 1 18 the half lives, they're gonna decrease. They last less and less time because the more mass you create to form an element, the more unstable it gets, so they don't last very long. Okay? And we're gonna say here if we look at the trends, you could see that co violent bonds. We have typical melting points. Nitrogen exists as a gas as end to gas for its natural state. That's why it's melting. Point is so low. Okay, so very low melting point. So it's easily vaporized. Phosphorus, on the other hand, has a higher melting point here. Phosphorus tends exists as a solid in nature. So having a basically go down the group as you go down the group, the dispersion forces gets stronger. The element. It's heavier, so it's solid, formal predominate instead of its gashes form. Okay, so that's why here it's melting point is higher. But then, once we make the transition to co violent networks, look at how much the melting point skyrockets. That's because co violent networks are extremely strong bonds, which increases the melting point by a lot. You can see that also happening with your entropy of fusion. You can see how it increased by a lot here. Then, when we get to metallic bonding with bismuth metallic body is not a strong as co co violent networks. Which is why the number is smaller Moscow via and the other elements that are in rose seven period. Seven of the periodic table since their synthetically made When we're talking about elements 1 13 and on, we don't really talk about the types of bonds and melting points that they have, because all of them have half lives that are seconds long. Okay, so they don't last very long. So it's hard to really analyze some of their key properties. Now, Ali, a trope is, um, remember, that means that you can have different forms of the same element if they're in the same state. Same physical state, phosphorus. Common form of it is p four, but P four comes in different varieties the way p four looks. It looks like this pyramid here. So we have our four phosphorus atoms connected to each other. Okay, so at all times, one of the phosphorus is is connected to the other three. Okay, So to make this structure here, we're gonna say here that the white form of phosphorus is made up of individual teacher he drones, which is this giving them low melting points and high soluble ITI in non polar solvents. Because of this, they are highly reactive, so they have a high reactivity. The other form of P for that dominates is the red form. Okay, so these exists mainly in chains, so they don't exist in this tetra he drawn structure. So here they have higher melting points. They have lower solid ability and non polar solvents. So they have low reactivity within the group. We have the other elements here. Arsenic tends to form sheets. It's found in long rows of sheets connected together here. We don't really talk about the types of bonds that antimony and bismuth um, contain. But just remember, as we go from antimony toe bismuth, realize that there's a sharp drop in melting point because we're transitioning from co violent networks to metallic bonding. So these are the key things about this group. This group very diverse in the way they have their chemical and physical properties behave because we're going between different types of bonding which directly impact your melting point, your heats of fusion and so on. Ah, few other key things we could talk about so other trends we could talk about in terms of this group. We know that the charge of nitrogen is minus three in this group, and phosphorus is well. But just realize, as you go down the group, the plus three oxidation state becomes more common. Okay, so here, when we get to bismuth business myths, most common oxidation state is plus three and not minus three. Like you would think. We're gonna say here that as we go from nitrogen to phosphorus, so nitrogen has electro negative value of 3. and phosphorus has an electro negative value of 2.1. So that's a big drop off 0.9, which is not very typical. And that's because as you go down the group, the group, the mass increases much faster than the size off the arm. Okay, so this results in a big drop in our electron negativity. This terminal also, it also has another effect. It has an effect on the density of these elements. This sharply increases the density as you go down as well. Okay, so that's another key thing that you'll notice too. So, as you go down, you're gonna see the density skyrocket as you go from nitrogen, which is a gas very low density toe phosphorus, which is a solid toe arsenic. So, as you keep going down, you're going to see that there's a big jump in the density as you go from these first two to these next group of elements. Okay, so these are the key things you need to take from this group again. Nitrogen is very diverse because we have tons of different types of elements here. Each with their own special property is an ability, so to speak. And if we take a look at a periodic table, remember that nitrogen and phosphorus would be our non metals. And then we'd say here that arsenic and antimony will be our metal Lloyds. And then we'll say here that these are metals. So another thing that ties into their whole diversity thing of how they have so many different properties, because we're going through the different classifications of elements as well. So these are the key things you need to take away from this group. Group five, known as the Nitrogen family or the Nick Pigeons