Subatomic Particles

by Jules Bruno
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the three key subatomic particles share some key differences and similarities in their masses, and charges now associated with subatomic particles is a new term. AM you am you is shorthand for atomic mass unit and is used to calculate the relative mass of an atom or subatomic particle. When it comes to the term of am, you weaken related to a few different things. First of all, we're gonna say 1 a.m. U equals 1/12 the mass of a carbon Adam. Now that's the official definition of it. But more importantly than that, when it comes to us, we're gonna say also that 1 a.m. U. Is equal to a new term. Dalton shorthand for Dalton is d A. It's named after John Dalton. John Dalton is one of the fathers of chemistry. We learn that there are the other ones. They're also connected to the subatomic particles. But the first we're going to talk about here is John Dalton. Now, most importantly, we have here a purple box Anytime we have a purple box that tells you that this is something you should memorize. It could be a formula. It could be a conversion factor. It could be a definition if it's in a purple box. That means that's an indication that I need toe. Remember what this is now? There's a lot of numbers, a lot of terms within the chart below it, but none of it's in purple, which means you really don't have to memorize those portions. So again, if you see a purple box, that means memorize this 1 a.m. U. Is equal to 1.66 times 10 to the negative 27 kilograms. So that is our conversion factor, which will allow us to go from kilograms 2 a.m. U and vice versa. Now how does it relate to our three subatomic particles? Well, when talking about our three subatomic particles neutrons, protons and electrons so their actual masses. If we look at neutrons, it's 1.67493 times 10 to the negative kg. Protons are very, very close. They're 1.67262 times 10 to the negative 27. So if you look, this is this is four and this is to protons, even though they're neutral, are just a little bit heavier in mass than protons. And then we can see that protons and neutrons way a lot mawr than electrons. Electrons are 0.91 times 10 to the negative 27. Now what is this telling me? Well, we know that the neutrons and the protons are housed within the nucleus, right? And we know protons and neutrons way mawr than electrons. So that would tell me that a majority of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus of the atom. That's what these numbers were telling me. Now we can take our actual masses and convert them into relative mass. The relative mass is where am you? Comes into play. So here we'd say that the relative mass of the neutron comes out to 1.866 a. M u. The relative mass of the proton comes out to 1. to 7 a.m. u. And then finally the mass of the electron comes out 2.55 a. M u. So actual mass relative mass, it doesn't matter. We can still see that the neutrons wait just a little bit more than the protons and both the neutrons and protons way a lot mawr than our electrons. Now here we have our relative charges, things we've already known about the subatomic particles. We know that the neutrons have no charge, so the relative charge zero protons are plus one. Electrons are minus one, but let's convert that into actual charge, more returning it into actual charge. Another name for charge is cool ums. So we'll go into greater detail with this term of columns when we go into chapters on electoral chemistry. But that's not for several chapters later. Now, if we're converting relevant charge to actual charge, this comes out to still be zero. Because it has no charge for protons, this comes out as positive 1.60218 times, 10 to the negative 19 cool ums And then remember, electrons have the opposite sign opposite magnitude, so it be the same exact number, but with an opposite sign so negative of that value. So these are the key identities key information on the three sub atomic particles. Now, again, it's a lot of information before us, but remember, what's in the purple box is most important here. When we talk about the relative charges, we already know what those are. So I didn't put boxes around those That's basic knowledge that should we should all. Now, now that we've talked about key similarities and differences of the subatomic particles, let's move on to some questions.