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Now let's see exactly how these positive ions and negative ions come about. If we take a look at the first one, we have a representation of an atom. Here. Here we have 11 or five and then beat. Remember, 11 represents our mass number, which is just the number of protons and neutrons together on the bottom. We have our atomic number, which represents the number of just protons. How do we know our atomic number is five. If we look at the model of the atom here we have one, 2345 for the number of protons. If we were to look on the periodic table, we'd see that the only element on the periodic table with an atomic number five would have to be boron. That's why the letter here is beat. Now, what we need to realize next is how maney electrons do we have within this Adam. Well, we have five electrons because we have 1234 and electrons. So we have Here are five protons and we have here five electrons. Okay, They're equal to one another. And if you were to think about it, five protons each one. Having a charge of plus one would mean that this is plus five five electrons, each with a negative. One charge would mean that this is negative. Five, if you add plus five and negative five together, they totally cancel one another out. So you have a number of zero. That means that this representation of boron is neutral. So this is the boron Adam. If we go to the other image of boron notice that we have here this first circle, right, this first circle here has two electrons in it. And then we have this second circle here which has three electrons in it. But in the other picture of boron, the second circle is now gone. Those three electrons are no longer there. All we're left with is two remaining electrons. So if we look, the number of protons within the nucleus hasn't changed. It's still 12345 So we still have five protons. But now we only have 12 electrons. If we think about it, this would be plus five plus minus two, right, Because of the two electrons. When you add those together, you have plus three as your answer so we have a charge of plus three or you could write it as three plus. So talk to your professor. Some professors don't care if it's written as plus three or three plus. Traditionally, we write the number before the charge, but it really doesn't matter now here because it has a charge of plus three or three. Plus, it represents an ion remembering ion will have a charge because it's either lost or gained electrons. In this case, it's lost three electrons who becomes plus three. So this represents our boron ion. If we take a look at what the next part with the and ions we have here oxygen, oxygen, elemental symbol is Oh, we see here that it has an atomic number of eight. So it has eight protons, and then here it's mass number. It's six. That means it has it's gonna have represent protons and neutrons together. So we know that this boron this oxygen has eight protons. Let's count the number of electrons. So we have It has eight electrons, so these numbers are equal to one another. So if we did plus eight plus negative eight. That would give us zero at the end. So this is our oxygen atom. Now. What's the difference between this representation of oxygen and the other one? Well, you should notice that the outer circle had originally six electrons on it, but now we've gained two additional electrons. So now there's eight electrons on the outside now. The number of protons, of course, is not changing. Because remember to create an eye on your either gaining or losing electrons. The other subatomic particles, protons and neutrons stay what they are. So here we have eight protons. And then if you count up all the electrons and add those two additional ones So 10 We have 10 electrons, so that would be plus eight plus minus 10 equals negative too. So the charge here would be minus two or two minus. Again, you can either put the charge before the number or the number before the charge. It really is a case by case basis with professors because some professors really don't care if you right tu minus for the ion or minus two. So make sure you talk to them and make sure which version they want. So here it has a chart, So this would be the oxygen ion. So just remember, this is what's really going on. When we're losing electrons, we gain a positive charge. When we're accepting or gaining electrons, we gain a negative charge. Now that we know the idea behind ion formation, let's continue on to some questions and let's see if we can determine what the charges are. How many subatomic particles are present for any given ion?

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