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General Chemistry

Learn the toughest concepts covered in Chemistry with step-by-step video tutorials and practice problems by world-class tutors

23. Chemistry of the Nonmetals

Oxygen Family

The Oxygen Family also known as the Chalogens represents Group 6A of the periodic table. 

The Oxygen Family

The chemical and physical features of Group 6A have many similarities from Group 5A. 


The Oxygen Family

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in this video, we're gonna take a look at Groups six a. Otherwise known as the Oxygen family. Now, besides the oxygen family, another name for this group is called the Chalk Logins. Okay, so you know the halogen SAirGroup seven a group six year term. The chalk logins. Since you need room, guys, let me take myself out of the image. Now we're gonna say, since destruction organization of group six A mirrors that of group five A. There will be many similarities between the two. So here we've basically put both groups side by side and see what some of the similarities are between them. So we're gonna say, here we have nitrogen and oxygen in the first row. We're gonna say what they have in common is that they are low boiling di atomic molecules. So we have die atomic. Raise this. So we have diatonic molecules. So we have oh, to gas and we have end to gas. So both of them are gasses. Both of them are die atomic. They are, of course, non metals. Then if we move over to phosphorous and sulfur now, so here we're gonna goto phosphorous and sulfur. We're gonna say that these guys here not die atomic. They're gonna be Polly Atomic molecular compounds or Polly Atomic molecules. So here we can have p four as a solid. And then the most common form of sulfur is S eight, which is also a solid. And here these guys are still non metals. Then we make the transition from, um those two we go toe arsenic and selenium. Both of them are basically grayish metal Lloyds. Then when we moved toe antimony and delirium. Now we're gonna say here they're both of them there. As we're progressing down, we're becoming more and more metallic, so they're more metallic than the ones before them. But we're going to say that these guys are just network Cole violent elements, and then here won't get to bismuth and polonium. Both of them are just medals. Now, I left these two slots empty because remember, these are your unstable radioactive form of elements. So here we already talked about in group five, and we have a Moscow via named after Moscow and that we have here Mr we have LV and here l V is our Livermore iam here it we used to be called a new Hexi. Um, so one one and hex is six, and that describes its atomic number. Both of these, what they have in common is that they're synthetic, so they're man made their highly radioactive. They have very small half lives. In fact, on a Nexium or Livermore iam here, we're gonna say that it waas basically discovered recently in 2000, we're gonna say here it's most stable form is Livermore IAM to 93. It has a half life off about 0. seconds. So remember, as we're moving from element 1 13 to 1 18 the half lives will steadily decrease, showing that how unstable they really are. And as we're looking at, these groups here just realize what's the trend? So there's a lot of trends we could talk about in terms of these. So we're gonna say here that as you go going down the group for both of them, you're gonna say that electrical conductivity increases because as we progress down, we're becoming more and more metallic, so electro conductivity increases because metallic characteristics are also increasing. We're gonna say here we go from individual molecules, which are these guys here these guys who would be classified as insulators until we get to our network co violent elements. Which are these guys here? So these guys have your network Covalin Bonds, so that would make them semiconductors. And then we start dealing with the medals again. We don't talk about the last two on the bottom Moscow V in Moscow via and Livermore Ian, because they're highly unstable. So here we're dealing with our medals. So that means we're dealing with conductors as we're progressing down. Okay, so that's a lot of the trend that we can talk about in terms of this other trends that we can we can see within this group here, as was, we go down the group, continue as we go down the group, we're going to see that the atomic size and ionic size of these elements will increase, and we'll see that our electro negativity will decrease and ionization energy now with Group six with group odd she That's all we can really say here. Yeah. So those are the most common trend that we can say in terms of Group six A as well as Group five a. Now here, let's talk about Aaliyah tropes with Group six A. We've talked about Ali tropes in the past. Remember, it's an element that's in the same phase. They're all solids. They just are connected differently to form different compounds. Oxygen has two major types of Aaliyah tropes that are possible. So the more stable one, which is colorless and odorless, is oxygen gas which we need to live. And then the harsher one, the more hazardous one. His bluish in color has a very strong and pungent smell. Is ozone okay now, ozone is part of the ozone layer. It reacts with UV light. So here we can say HV h d represents UV light. What you'd be like does is it strikes the ozone molecules converting them into oxygen. Gas I was on protects us from these UV rays. Now sulfur in this group is basically the element within this group that has the most number of Aaliyah Tropic forms here it has on record more than 10 different forms. But like with all things, it always has something that's the most stable of them all. Here it's most stable form is the Ortho Rahm Bic form, which is s eight. This form basically connects eight. Sulfur is together into a cyclic structure. This is what it would look like from top view. If you're looking directly from up above, that's the way it would look. But if you're looking at from a side view, it will look more like this. Something closer to this here, the bonds that are wedged it means that those bonds air coming out of the page. Okay, so this is more of a three D representation when we're looking at it from the side view. Now. Selenium also has a bunch of Aaliyah Tropic forms. It could just be mono atomic, Die Atomic and then Polly Atomic forms, and then tell Erie, um also has major forms as well. There's the amorphous delirium that doesn't have a real designated shape. It's usually blackish grayish in color, and then you have your crystalline, which is basically ah, bunch of Hillary ums organized in a repeating pattern that's easy to follow. So this one possesses a hexagon shape or hexagonal shape. So amorphous just means that the atoms are just arranging random order, no real pattern to them crystal and means that they are organized in the way that they're shaped in this case, they're taking on hexagon shaped. So those are the biggest features that you could take away from groups six a. And realize that Group six A and five a kind of mirror each other in some of the key physical and chemical behaviors of the elements. So we mapped out the similarities between the two, so remembering one is a good way toe reinforce the other.