Lewis Dot Symbols

by Jules Bruno
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So let's take a look at the rules for drawing a lewis dot symbol. First thing we need to realize is that we have our element symbol. So here hydrogen is H. Aluminum is a L. And then we have our surrounding dots in red. Now we're going to see there are some exceptions to this, but the vast majority of the surrounding dots or red we need to realize here is that when we're talking about our elements symbol, it represents that elements nucleus as well as its core electrons. And we'll say those core electrons are green. The surrounding dots represent the valence electrons for that particular element. Now, if we take a look, we see that lithium is in group one A. Since the main group element, it has one Valence electron, which is represented by this one, died. If we look at carbon, Carbon is the main group element. It's in Group four A. So it has four dots around it. Now the way we tend to do it is we add our first dot here at the top, and as we add more and more dots, we start adding them clockwise. So here goes one for beryllium. Boron has three. So we had one here and carbon has forced. We had another one here. When we get to nitrogen now we start pairing them up. And that's how we draw our lewis dot electrons. Now, if we take a look at hydrogen and helium, their electrons are green, which means that they represent their core electrons. Remember, hydrogen and helium Onley have one electron shell because they have that one electron shell, You could say it represents their core electrons or even their valence electrons. Okay, so they're a little bit of an exception to what we're accustomed to seeing If we take a look at our transition metals. Remember, we said for transition metals, we look at their S and D electrons to determine the number of valence electrons. So if we look here at titanium, it's electron configuration is are gone for us to three d to it would have four valence electrons total for matting the S and D electrons. Now you need to remember the rules that we went over in terms of electron configurations to know what I'm talking about. If you haven't, I highly suggest you go back and take a look at electron configurations If we look. If we look at manganese, manganese will be are gone for us to three d five. So that would be seven valence electrons. But, Jules, what if I don't want to do the electron configuration? Well, you don't necessarily have to, because here's a trick. The number of valence electrons for these transition metals. You can determine them by looking at their group number. So three B is Group three. Group one B is Group 11. These numbers here also correspond to the number of valence electrons each of the transition metals have. So if you don't wanna waste your time in writing out the electron configuration of, Let's Say, for example, zinc zinc is in Group 12, which also equals the number of valence electrons. Because if we look, we have to s electrons plus 10 D electrons, which adds up to 12. So just remember these little key things when it comes to the electron dot symbols for each one of these elements from the periodic table