by Jules Bruno

here, we say that the average charges the charge and element possesses from the overall charge off all its residents. Structures here, it says, determine the average charge of the oxygen atom within the phosphate ion. So phosphate ion basically has phosphate double bonded toe one oxygen, but then single, bonded, tow all the others. It gives us four resident structures Now, if only given the molecular formula, then draw one of the residents structures and have given multiple resident structures again. Just choose one here. We're going to calculate the formal charge for the elements and add them to determine their overall charge. So we're gonna focus on one of them. Let's focus on this one. Remember, formal charge equals group number, minus the bonds. The element is making, plus each non bonding electron calculated or added individually. So let's say that the double bonded oxygen, oxygen A and all these single bonded ones are oxygen. Be so Oxygen A is in Group six A. It's making to bonds, and it has four electrons that are not bonding, so its formal charges zero the oxygen be. They are in group six A as well. One of them is making one bond, and it has six non bonding electrons. So this one is zero, and these are all negative one. So now we're gonna add up all the formal charges together. So zero plus negative one plus negative one plus negative one equals negative three for the overall charge, Step four says, divide the overall charge by the total number of those elements. So we have a negative three overall charge and we're dealing with four oxygen's. So each of those oxygen's would have a charge of minus 3/4 so we'd say their average charges is minus 3/4. It's a simple is that draw the molecule correctly, Then you're going toe. Figure out the total overall charge of all of the elements in question and divide by the total number that exist. That gives us each other individual or average charges.

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