Gold exists in two common positive oxidation states, +1
and +3. The standard reduction potentials for these oxidation states are
Au+1aq2 + e- ¡ Au1s2 Ered ° = +1.69 V
Au3+1aq2 + 3 e- ¡ Au1s2 Ered ° = +1.50 V
(c) Miners obtain gold by soaking gold-containing ores
in an aqueous solution of sodium cyanide. A very soluble
complex ion of gold forms in the aqueous solution because
of the redox reaction
4 Au1s2 + 8 NaCN1aq2 + 2 H2O1l2 + O21g2
¡ 4 Na3Au1CN2241aq2 + 4 NaOH1aq2
What is being oxidized, and what is being reduced in this
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