The energy-level diagram in Figure 9.36 shows that the sideways overlap of a pair of p orbitals produces two molecular orbitals, one bonding and one antibonding. In ethylene there is a pair of electrons in the bonding π orbital between the two carbons. Absorption of a photon of the appropriate wavelength can result in promotion of one of the bonding electrons from the p2p to the p*2p molecular orbital. (c) Is the C¬C bond in ethylene stronger or weaker in the excited state than in the ground state? Why?

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