Laboratory Materials 1

by Jules Bruno
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in this video, we're gonna familiarize ourselves with some of the instruments used in a basic chemistry laboratory. Now we're going to say here that the laboratory portion of your chemistry course puts into practice some of the concepts you'll gradually be learning this semester. So you'll be learning about hydration ins as well as dilutions as well as other concepts such as evaporation. And with these concepts comes the use of instruments or apparatuses that help us to do these types of processes. So here we're gonna take a look at each apparatus and learn its name and its basic function. So for the first one we have in this image, we have what's called a transfer pipette. So these air your basic pipettes made out of plastic cheap plastic. We use them from the name you can tell they're used to transfer Small amounts of liquid typically will transfer some of our solution, maybe into another container, and then we'll quickly disposed of the transfer pipette in the indicated waste bends within your lab. So here its primary uses just to transfer small amounts of liquid. Now, here in this next image, this is what is called our Bure ette. Okay, so it's gonna become important that you guys understand how to use of your red You're gonna pour in your liquid into the top of the Bure. It the liquid that you're pouring in is called the Thai Trent. And here let's say that this mark here represents 25 smells. So we've placed in 25 miles of our hydrant, and as we start and we open it up here with this stop cock here which opens up the valve and lets the tightrope pour out and as it's decreasing down, you're counting how much off the Tetris you're using. So if we stop and we see that we've reached this point, which is 18 MLS, all you do is you subtract thes two numbers to know how much off your titrate you used. So then you used seven mls, so to go drop by, drop within a container, that has another solution. So we're gonna say here that this is typically used in the preparation of solutions and your calmly here being used a lot when it comes toe acid based titrate Asians. Okay, so those are the predominant times that we use the Bureau wrecked. Next we have here. This is a funnel, but it's more commonly known specifically known as the Buckner funnel. So here we have these little openings here, these little holes. What you're gonna do here is you're gonna place on it. Filter paper. Okay, So you're gonna take this filter paper and basically put it on top here, where? Covers up these holes. And then what's gonna happen is you're gonna have a container with liquid in it. And in this liquid you have bits of solid material that hasn't dissolved, and you're gonna pour it into this Buckner funnel. The liquid portion will pass through the filter paper through the holes and drip out here into some type of container. The solid portions are too big to fit through the holes. So the deposit themselves here. And as you can see, this Buckner funnel is really used to separate a solid from a liquid. Okay, so we're separating a solid from a liquid. We're gonna say this processes could also be called filtration. You're filtering out the solids from the liquid. Now we're gonna say here that this Bucknell funnel typically goes with this vacuum flask. Okay, so There's a lot of names you might hear for, but it's mainly a vacuum flask because right here in this opening here, we would attach a hose, which is connected to a vacuum, and turn on the vacuum, and it would start to suck air out and imagine that this Buckner funnel is on top here, not the best drawer. So it's sucking out the air and what that causes. It causes the liquid to drip out faster so that you re left with these solid particles on the filter paper within the Bucknell funnel. So here this vacuum flask, it aids the Buckner funnel in filtration, so that's its primary purpose. Next, as you can see, there's a lot of different instruments. They're very similar, but somewhat different from one another. So what we have next year is a graduated cylinder. Typically in your lab, you'll have a small one, which is 10 Els, and you'll probably have a larger one, which could go up to 100 emails. Okay, those are the two standard size that you're typically going to see in your chemistry lab Here. All they help us to do is measure out volumes. Okay, So they're not very precisely just helping us to figure out, um 10 ml zor 100. Emil's in terms of amount of liquid that we have. What we have next here is we have our beaker. Okay, so this is just helping us to measure out larger quantities off liquid. We're gonna say the typical size that you'll find in your lab are 250 miles of this, or maybe even 500 miles. Now, next, What we have here is we have a volumetric flask. Now this is used for dilutions. So what we do here is we have our solution here and here. These things are typically 100 miles in size, but there are larger ones that can go upto like one leader. So this is our solution here, and let's Sarah solution is 25 m outs and here we say that it has a concentration. Now we're talking about terms that you might not have covered yet, but eventually we'll get there. So we have a solution that's 25 miles in volume. And its concentration is 250.10 Moeller here. We're gonna dilute it and diluting means that we're gonna add water to it and we're gonna add enough water to reach the line here and we'll say that, Mark, there is 100 m outs, so I'm gonna fill it up with water, right all the way up to the mark. And when you're doing dilutions with the volumetric flask to make sure you mix it thoroughly, shake it up and down so it makes it thoroughly so. So that way, what's on the bottom is allowed to reach the top and then back down so that you get a thorough Mick throughout. And here, when it comes to dilution, we use a dilution formula, which is m one V one equals m two V two. M one represents our initial concentration or mole Arat e volume. This is our initial volume, and then m two represents our final volume our final more clarity or concentration or are diluted concentration. And then V two represents our final volume. V two, which is our final volume equals your V initial. Plus, the volume added. So in this case we had 10 Moeller off concentration of our solution. Its initial volume was 25 miles. Here. We don't know what it's new concentration will be, but its new final volume is 100 m else. Once we've added all the water we needed, now we do is we divide both sides by 100 you'll be able to find out what your new concentration would be for your solution. So that's the approach we would take in terms off dilution question later on. If you guys haven't done this year, we'll see within our chapter reviews. How do we approach dilution questions? This is just a basic premise in terms of how do we set it up? But remember to do dilutions within the lab. We use a volumetric flask and then finally, here we have what's called another type of flask. This is an Erlin Meyer flask. Okay, so basically here, this is similar to a beaker in that we have it in terms of measuring out amounts of solution. But this one here is really to transfer, transfer larger amounts of solution. Okay, so let's say you could have measured out. So in terms of the processes, we could have done a lot of things. We could have used the bureau rent toe, measure out amount of solution. We could have used a Bucknell fun on a vacuum flask in order to isolate the liquid portion and get rid of the impurities, which are solids. We could have then taken that solution that we isolated and put it in the volumetric flask and dilute it with water and that amount of water that we're adding to it. We could have measured with either the graduated cylinder or the beaker. Once we've created our solution, we could have transferred it finally to this er, Lemire flask at the end. And if we wanted, we could further dilute that larger amount of solution. All these things work together in terms of volume, manipulation and recording. Again, it's important that you guys remember the names of these instruments within your lab because you're ta or your professor may just say the name of the instrument. If you don't know which one they are, then you'll have a hard time. I'm setting up your lab again. This will go hand in hand when you go and cover solution chemistry. When we start talking about polarity and moles and grants and terms like that, we'll continue our discussion on other instruments found with the lab later on in additional video. But for now, just keep in mind what each one of these instruments are called and what their primary functions are.