here, it says Which of the following reactions is associated with the latticed association of lithium oxide. Now with lattice association, we start out with a solid ionic compound, so we're starting out with a lithium oxide solid. That means that these three air out and remember, it's an endo thermic process. So we absorb energy toe break this ionic solid into gaseous ions. So they have to have charges and they have to be in their gaseous state. That means Option four, which corresponds to choice d would be the right answer.